American twin astronauts provided NASA scientists with rare data on how long-term spaceflight affects the human body. While one brother spent a record-setting 340 days in outer space, the other was stranded on Earth. They spent years under a medical microscope. A comparative study on their genetic profiles showed differences in length of telomeres and gene expression, which seemed to diminish slowly over time.

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Scientists have discovered an effective stem cell treatment to battle bone loss, that could help regenerate bones of osteoporosis patients and even astronauts. The novel therapy showed remarkable results in mice and is expected to enter human clinical trials in the next two years. Read more

One of the particularly interesting chemical properties that are giving us some insight into our organic world is chirality. Chirality is a geometric property of most biochemical molecules that makes them different than their mirror images, just like our left and right hand are. Read more

Surface features such as canyons and valleys on the “Red Planet” suggest an abundance of liquid water in its geological past. Water vapors on Mars were first detected in the early 60s followed by observation of water-rich ice patches decades later, but it was not until 2011 that Lujendra Ojha, a Nepali undergraduate student, spotted signs of possible water flows on our neighboring planet. Read more